. Stress management techniques
. Stress management techniques
Reflexology in the Last 30 Years: Giant Steps in Medical Uses and Scientific Research, Impacting Health Benefits
In the past 30 years, Scientific breakthroughs in reflexology have allowed the increasingly frequent use of Reflexology in preventive and curative, family and specialized medicine, providing the user with complementary benefits to their physical and mental health, and quality of life.
This recently published article Foot Reflexology: RecentResearch Trends and Prospects Dec 20, 2022 ( Pub Med Central - U.S. National Institutes of Health's/National Library of Medicine (NIH/NLM) summarizes the bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature on Foot Reflexology published from 1991 to 2021, according to the non exhaustive data available from the Web Of Science Core Collection.
- Worldwide research by country / Data Sources (Medical Journals - Web of Science Core Collection): 62 countries investigated Reflexology, forming 12 clusters of collaborative research, publications by 28 countries, the 10 most prolific being: USA, UK, Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, Iran, Turkey, Canada, Australia, India, Taiwan.
- Type of scientific study / Most prolific authors
- Evolution of publications from 1991 to 2021: 801 articles published in 414 scientific journals
- Topics investigated/Guidance for future research: integrative complementary medicine; nursing; oncology; medicine, general and internal; neurosciences and neurology; psychology; health care sciences and services; rehabilitation; biomedical social sciences; and obstetrics and gynecology
Foot Reflexology: Recent Research Trends and Prospects Dec 20, 2022 Deng-Chuan Cai,Ching-Yun Chen,Ting-Yun Lo,Teruhide Koyama NIH/PMC9819031
For this reason,and for not so many years, scientific research in the world has multiplied and now corroboratea and explains the benefits of clinical reflexology, not only its physical and physiological benefits, but also as a therapy for mental health, improving our well-being, i.e. emotional, psychological and social states (that is, the way we think, feel and act in life).
As a mental health therapy, Reflexology helps to :
- Reduce stress and increase the feeling of relaxation
- Feel more energetic
- Manage anxiety
- Reduce and control both physical and emotional pain
- Overcome fatigue
Reflexology acts mainly through the nervous system, impacting the endocrine system, improving respiratory, circulatory, and immune functions... and thus the person's energetic and emotional state.
Tyler Wheeler, MD & Julie Davis. Reflexology, WebMd August 25, 2021 shorturl.at/CKQV4
Brenta A Bauer, MD. Mayo Clinic, 29 July 2021 https://www.mayoclinic.org/es-es/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/what-is-reflexology/faq-20058139
Deeper investigation into reflexology as well as evolving imaging techniques allow to better understand how Reflexology works as a complex - if not complete therapy - or as diverse “Therapeutic Modalities” depending on the nature of reflexology applied (Foot Reflexology types vary in their choice of : reflex points protocol, pressure intensity, patterns of movements, frequency/duration of treatment, and other factors or a combination of factors.)
Mechanisms. Reflexology and how it works is explained through:
- The Reflex Zone Theory
- The highly sensitive nature of the human foot: it is one of the body´s most sensitive area to sensory stimulation, rich in mechanoreceptors innervation.
- The mechanotransduction effect of reflexology stimuli (or the ability of a cell to actively sense, integrate, and convert mechanical stimuli into biochemical signals that result in intracellular changes, such as ion concentrations, activation of signaling pathways and transcriptional regulation.)
- The piezoelectric effect of reflexology stimuli and its impact on the autonomic nervous system and neural transmission.
- The changes and balancing effects of reflexology on the fascial system (Fascia is a system that surrounds, interweaves between, and interpenetrates all organs, muscles, bones and nerve fibres, endowing the body with a functional structure, and providing an environment that enables all body systems to operate in an integrated manner), molecular and muscoskeletal systems. (“The plantar fascia on the sole of the foot manipulated during reflexology, links to the Achilles tendon which sits within the superficial back line of fascia, tracing up the back of the leg, onwards to the spine and then over the back and top of the head to the brow. The myofascial transition of plantar fascia-gastrocnemius; gastrocnemius-hamstrings; hamstrings-lumbar fascia/erector spinae/occipito-frontalis is of particular interest for the reflexologist. Working the reflexes on and around the plantar fascia may have an effect on those body parts, as adjustment and release occurs all the way up from foot to head.”)
- Therapeutic relationship : psychological benefits of therapist/patient interconnection, rapport and empathy
- Therapeutic touch: beneficial nature of human touch
- Hawthorne effect (change of patient´s reaction and behaviour when allowing/receiving increased attention )
- Placebo effect
- Encouraging, diagnose-free, natural healing environment
Outcome and Benefits:
- Stress and techno-stress modulator
- Hormonal balance
- Haemodynamic effects (or improvement of blood flow)
- Improved propioception (the body's ability to sense movement, action, and location), stability and balance. (“Studies have shown that the retinacula of the ankle and foot are rich in nerve fibres and proprioceptors...which, through stimuli...deliver signals to the brain about spatial positioning and effective movement in space.”
- Induces sleep-state brainwaves leading to
- Better sleep and rest
- Improvement of inmune system
- Improvement of anxiety and depression
- Heightened cognitive functions
- Improved digestive functions
- Reduced pain perception (threshold, tolerance, duration)
- Improved inflammatory conditions
- Release of muscular tension
- Facilitates adaptation to circadian movements
- Urinary bladder control
Reflexology: Exploring the mechanism of action. JudithWhatley, JoannePerkins, CarolSamuel. Elsevier Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice - Volume 48, August 2022, 101606 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1744388122000743
Principios de Reflexologia Dr. Jesus Manzanares Corominas, Paidos Iberica Ediciones, Sp
It occurs with muscle contractions of the neck, face, scalp, or shoulders, due to tension, stress, anxiety, depression, head trauma, or poor head posture maintained for a certain time (when sitting at the computer for example, or when sleeping with bad posture). A cold or sinusitis, eye strain, bruxism (teeth-clenching), excessive caffeine consumption (or caffeine withdrawal), tobacco, alcohol... can also cause headaches.
Headache is more common in adults, and in women.
It rarely reflects a serious health problem. It does not worsen with routine physical activity. It improves with rest, and it improves and can disappear with reflexology.
Migraine is a more extreme, recurring type of headache, usually on one side of the head, with a throbbing sensation: it is a constitutional disorder with an inherited basis. It can be accompanied by nausea or vomiting, and increased sensitivity to lights (photophobia) or noise (phonophobia).
Stress, menstruation or hormonal changes, climate changes, intense physical activity... can trigger or worsen migraine.
It improves with rest. Symptoms, duration, intensity, frequency improve with Reflexology
Today numerous world-wide scientific studies demonstrate the effectiveness of Reflexology in preventing and treating both headaches and migraines, relieving pain and other symptoms, shortening their duration, reducing their frequency. Reflexology is a safe and effective non-pharmacological option in the management of headaches and migraines for those who suffer from them.
A pragmatic case series o clients living with medically diagnosed migraine self-refered to reflexology. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, Elsevier Nov 2020 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1744388120311051
Analysis of the efficacy of Reflexology in the complex treatment of migraine SafonovMI, Naprienko MV Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakpva,
Effects of Reflexology in reducing migraine attacks, pain, duration, intensity and ferquency in females. Journal of Chinese Medicine, Elsevier April 2017 WojciechKobsa PaellLizis, Halina RomualdaZieba https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S025462721730047X
Dolor de Cabeza o Cefalea 19 abril 22 CuidatePlus https://cuidateplus.marca.com/enfermedades/neurologicas/dolor-cabeza-o-cefalea.html#:~:text=El%20dolor%20de%20cabeza%20o,se%20presenta%20de%20forma%20intermitente
Effect of applying reflexology massage on nitroglycerin-induced migraine-type headache: A placebo-controlled clinical trial. Department of Nursing and Midwifery, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmıa, Iran Submitted (Başvuru tarihi) 02.10.2017 Accepted after revision (Düzeltme sonrası kabul tarihi) 13.04.2018 https://www.journalagent.com/agri/pdfs/AGRI-43815-EXPERIMENTAL_AND_CLINICAL_STUDIES-GHAVAMI.pdf
Reflejoterapia podal para combatir el estrés CuidatePLus 8enero 2002 https://cuidateplus.marca.com/enfermedades/enfermedades-del-pie/2002/01/07/reflejoterapia-podal-salud-pies-8030.html
Several scientific studies confirm the benefits reaped by people of all ages in Asian countries by walking barefoot on cobblestones, 30 minutes daily. The stimulating effect results from the activation of certain reflex points (nerve endings which are numerous in the feet) such as in foot reflexology.
The studies carried out underline positive results in:
- Sleep quality
- Pain relief
- Dialostic blood pressure
- Control over possible falls
- Mood improvement
Among a multitude of other benefits, Foot Reflexology also confers the above, and acts more specifically on reflex points determined according to the conditions sought to be improved. For people who do not have a garden or outdoor path, there are cobblestone rugs on the market, as well as reflexology insoles.
Visit: www.reflexologybarcelona.com for your next clinical reflexology session.
Study confirms benefits of cobblestone walking for older adults – News dical Life Sciences Oregon Research Institute 2005 https://www.news-medical.net/news/2005/06/29/11422.aspx
Health Benefits of cobblestone mat walking - Human Kinetics Journal 2022 https://journals.humankinetics.com/view/journals/japa/11/4/article-p487.xml
It offers the patient an alternative to relieve pain and reduce the tensions created, sometimes generated by heavy treatments.
It also makes it possible to accompany the patient during long stays in the hospital, who, in fact, may find himself morally and psychologically tired. This is where reflexology plays its calming role.
“The wonderful thing about the integration of reflexology in the hospital setting is the birth of the collaboration between the reflexologist, the doctor and the healthcare team. This simple collaborative approach allows patients to be entitled to a new kind of care, a new opportunity to alleviate their suffering.” In a crisis situation, reflexology can sometimes calm as effectively as medication." Says Dr. Martine Faure-Alderson. He carried out research at the Marie Curie Institute in Paris that has made it possible to classify the practice of reflexology among non-invasive psycho-corporal therapies for fighting pain (and which includes tactile massage, hypnosis and relaxation techniques... .)
Reflexology is used as a holistic, preventive and/or complementary therapy in, for example: cancerology, diagnostic imaging, gerontological, perinatal, pediatric care, angiology, psychology, addictions...
Reflexology allows deep relaxation, and acts against pain. Improves blood circulation. Normalizes organic and glandular function.
Here are some of the many western countries where reflexology is present in hospitals and medical centers:
San Joan de Deu, Barcelona https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HcDFBOIV1VY
Denmanrk, Norway: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21244655/
Reflexology Proven Efficient in Back Pain Treatment from Cervicals to Lumbars,Sacrum and Coccyx, Arthrosis, Sciatica, Piriforme Syndrome
Reflexology is a complementary, natural and harmless therapy that acts on the central nervous system through manual and calming stimulation of specific reflex points in the feet and hands, sending messages to the brain, that naturally changes and decreases how pain is perceived.
Reflexology facilitates body and mental relaxation, benefits circulation, breathing, and the immune response, among other therapeutic effects.
Foot reflexotherapy induces analgesia in low back pain. Hindawi 2017 https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/2378973/
The effects of reflexology on low back pain intensity...Iranian journal of nursing and midwifery, 2012 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3696219/
Effects of foor refleology on p ain and anxiety after cervical spine surgery, 2021 https://hqlo.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12955-021-01667-2
Efectividad de la reflexologia podal en pacientes con atrosis cervical. Medisan 2017 www.redalyc.org/pdf/3684/368449645002.pdf
What is Reflexology, WebMed Aug, 21.2021 https://www.webmd.com/balance/what-is-reflexology
The results obtained confirm that Reflexology is an effective natural and complementary therapy in the treatment of functional constipation, in people of all ages, children and the elderly.
* The ‘Risk of Bias’ is a tool developed by the “Cochrane Collaboration” to evaluate the methodology of scientific evidence, being useful in systematic reviews for the individual analysis of the included RCTs. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) present the highest level of experimental research according to the levels of evidence.
Reflexology on Constipation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Zahra Anjoman Azari 2020 Shiraz e-medical Journal. Shiraz University of Medical Sciences https://sites.kowsarpub.com/semj/articles/100585.html
Foot reflexology in the management of functional constipation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Huang Yaqi. NIH. PubMed. Gov 2020 Aug https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32891277/
Effect of Reflexology on the Constipation Status of Elderly People Bahar Inkaya Yonago Acta Med. 2020 May https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7231874/
Reflexology in the management of encopresis and chronic constipation Eileen Bishop Nursing Children and Young People RCNi Plus 2003 https://journals.rcni.com/doi/abs/10.7748/paed2003.04.15.3.20.c843
Significant Improvement in Restless Leg Syndrome and Akinetic Rigidity Syndrome with Reflexology: Scientific Evidence
that causes an irrepressible urge to move the legs, particularly during rest: people suffering from this syndrome feels uncomfortable unless they get up and walk. The movement stops the unpleasant sensation for a while. No one knows exactly what causes RLS. It may be due to a problem with the way dopamine is used by brain cells.
Dopamine is a brain chemical that helps with muscle movement.
Rigid-akinetic syndrome is clinically characterized by muscle rigidity, slowness in the execution of movements (bradykinesia), decreased range of motion (hypokinesia), and impaired balance. It is the consequence of a dopaminergic imbalance that can occur at two levels: presynaptic or postsynaptic.
The scientific studies cited below complement and confirm the benefits and relief described by people affected by one of these syndromes when receiving reflexology treatments as a complementary therapy to their medical protocol.
European Parkinson’s Disease Association (EPDA) Reflexology as a complementary therapy in PD https://www.epda.eu.com/living-well/therapies/complementary-therapies/reflexology/
Parkinson´s Disease medical Rehabilitation Methods https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Elcin-Huseyn-2/publication/353383613_Parkinson's_Disease_Medical_Rehabilitation_Methods/links/6135c2c438818c2eaf85cf70/Parkinsons-Disease-Medical-Rehabilitation-Methods.pdf
The effects of two methods of reflexology and stretching exercises on the severity of restless leg syndrome among hemodialysis patients https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4857654/
The Effect of Foot Reflexology Massage on the Sleep Quality of Elderly Women With Restless Leg Syndrome http://jccnc.iums.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=152&slc_lang=en&sid=1&printcase=1&hbnr=1&hmb=1
Severity of Restless Legs Syndrome in Female Patients Undergoing Dialysis: A Randomized Controlled Trial https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-Effectiveness-of-Foot-Reflexology-in-the-of-in-Ghasemi-Rejeh/ee20dd17280fc6ce90e16d229c363b5630bbe205
The application of a child reflexology protocol on the plantar reflexes of the nervous and digestive
systems of infants with colic significantly reduces their daily crying and irritability, thus minimizing the anguish and distress of their parents or caregivers.
This is demonstrated by several recent scientific studies.
The reflexology protocol should be applied by a certified professional reflexologist.
Is foot reflexology effective in reducing colic symptoms in infants: A randomized placebo-controlled trial. Nimet Karatas. AysegulIsler Dalgic. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, Science Direct June 2021
A pilot study of parents' experiences of reflexology treatment for infants with colic in Finland. Leena Hannula. Pauli Puukka. Marjut Asunmaa. Markku Mäkijärvi. PubMed December 2020
What can help (see your doctor):
- Nasal use of saline solution,
- Inhalations of Ravintsara (Cinnamomum Camphora) essential oil, and
- Foot reflexology: "... Daily nasal irrigation and a daily reflexology massage were equally effective and improved symptoms of chronic sinusitis in more than 70% of the subjects. Medication use was reduced to approximately one third of the participants regardless of the intervention. " as shown by medical studies.
With no side effects, the application of foot reflexology on the reflexes of the upper respiratory tract usually alleviates the effects of rhino-sinusitis: Minutiously massage your feet daily, with careful attention to the upper respiratory system reflexes, as indicated in the photo. (Every day for 15-20 minutes)
Reflexology for Sinusitis, Rhinitis and upper respiratory disorders http://www.barcelonareflexologia.com/2017/04/reflexologia-para-sinusitis-rinitis-y.html
Alleviation of sinonasal symptoms. Diane G.HeatleyMDKari E.McConnellRN, CORLNTony L. KilleBSGlen E.LeversonPhD 30 January 2003 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0194599801838195
Hypoxia and Rhino-Sinusitis Hyung-Ju Cho1,2 and Chang-Hoon Kim1,2, * 28 February 2018 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5836558/
Use of alternative medicine in Israeli chronic rhinosinusitis patients Arkadi Yakirevitch, Lev Bedrin, Lela Migirov, Michael Wolf, Yoav P Talmi https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19755095/
This study shows
that the application of reflexology leads to a wide range of clear
secondary manifestations (or “ Body Behaviours”, expressed
through different physiological reactions grouped into 4 categories:
- Saccadic involuntary eye movements with eyelids closed, a response to non-visual stimuli
- Spontaneous body movements, 10 to 20 min into the session (hands, arms, legs, and fingers, and facial: eyebrows, chin and labial movements)
- Jaw movements
- Head movements
The study links
reflexology treatment to:
- Muscle tone variations that release tensions contained in the musculoskeletal system as a response to obtain postural equilibrium.
- Growing drowsiness and clear feature and physical indications of relaxation as the reflexology session progressed, with brief sudden muscle twitches, temperature decrease, disconnection of the environmental perception
- Benefits similar to NREM sleep (characterized by slow eye movement, slow brain waves, stillness): a short nap that benefits memory consolidation, the learning process and combatting problematic situations, concentration.
“Recent research on eye movements in sleep and wakefulness propose new and diverse theories on the connections that can be established between eye movements and memory processes, reading comprehension and learning as well as connections with the processing of emotional memories. “
Various extremely important physiological processes are closely related, or determined by sleep: the establishment or conservation of energy, elimination of free radicals accumulated during the day, the regulation or restoration of cortical electrical activity, thermal regulation, metabolic or endocrine regulation, synaptic homeostasis, immunological activation or memory consolidation, among others...
There is ample scientific literature that proves the benefits of reflexology on sleep quality (please see our previous posts).
It is interesting to note that the application of sustained sedation during the reflexology treatment in the temporomandibular joint, the oculomotor center, celiac plexus and the highest point of the diaphragm might have some relationship with the results of the study: clinical experience shows that there are points with great therapeutic content.
The authors also add: “Many of these responses do not happen simply by touch, suggesting that reflexology is more significant and deeper than a simple massage effect”.
Exploring the body through reflexology: Physical behaviors during application https://www.reflexology.ie/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/Exploring-the-body-through-reflexology.pdf
Eficacia de Reflexologia en insomnio y sueño http://www.barcelonareflexologia.com/2021/03/eficacia-de-reflexologia-en-problemas.html
Respuestas hormonales y neuronales de la Reflexología y beneficios sobre cognición social, dolor, estrés, ansiedad... http://www.barcelonareflexologia.com/2020/12/respuestas-hormonales-y-neuronales-de.html
Reflexology and Hypnosis Prove Equally Efficient in Treating Anxiety and Stress: The Mind-Body Connection
However the effect of Reflexology on the mind, and the effect of Hypnosis on the body cannot be underestimated, or outright cancelled, in either treatment.
Nor can the role, let alone the social role, of the therapist.
Health needs balance. Inside balance: the perfect working together of the nervous system with its neural responses and the endocrine system with its chemical responses, and of all our functions... and outside balance: the integration of, and response to, a healthy environment, as being part of our physical and mental well-being.
Although mainstream contemporary science and healthcare practices tend to study and treat the mind and the body as separate entities, increasing research and evidence-based practices support the notion of a tridirectional relationship between 3 essential health factors: Body, Mind, Environment.
These studies suggest that we might benefit more from acknowledging these interactions and adopting a more holistic approach to our health and wellbeing. Again, they corroborate how both Reflexology and Hypnosis (Mind and Body treatments) are effective and efficient in treating Anxiety and Stress (Mind and Body) responses to our environment.
Reflexology Compared to Hypnosis in Daily Stress Management https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5593310/
Exploring the Mind-Body Connection https://positivepsychology.com/mind-body-connection/
Neurological evidence of a Mind-Body Connection https://psychiatryonline.org/doi/full/10.1176/appi.ajp-rj.2018.130401
Mind and Body Connection https://www.takingcharge.csh.umn.edu/what-is-the-mind-body-connection
Rigorous science upends the mond-body myth https://news.northeastern.edu/2017/05/16/rigorous-science-upends-the-mind-body-myth/
Several of our past posts address the science-based efficacy of reflexology in combatting stress, anxiety, pain ... factors that negatively affect the quality of sleep, and can even cause insomnia.
It is interesting to note that 15-20 minutes inside a foot reflexology treatment on the reflexes of the central nervous system, the pituitary and the pineal glands (endocrine system), many people feel not only the soothing and relaxing effects of reflexology, but actually become sleepy, or fall asleep.
Clinical studies in medical journals around the world - Spain, USA, Israel, Hong-Kong, Turkey... show how reflexology naturally induces N1 and N2 sleep stage brain waves, thus confirming that weekly Reflexology treatments improve sleep disorders, insomnia and fatigue, including in people undergoing heavy medical treatment.
Reflexology and polysomnography: Changes in cerebral wave activity induced by reflexology promote N1 and N2 sleep stages : https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1744388117300221
Acupressure, reflexology, and auricular acupressure for insomnia: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1389945712002572
Can foot reflexology be a complementary therapy for sleep disturbances? Evidence appraisal through a meta‐analysis of randomized controlled trials https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jan.14699
How reflexology can help with sleep https://sleepcouncil.org.uk/how-reflexology-can-help-with-sleep/#:~:text=Reflexology%20for%20sleep,-There%20is%20apparently&text=Usually%20in%20a%20person%20who,reflexology%20is%20calming%20and%20effective.
Reflexology Therapy for Less Stress, More Relaxation, and Better Sleep https://thesleepdoctor.com/2020/06/02/reflexology-therapy-for-less-stress-more-relaxation-and-better-sleep/
Reflexology: its effects on physiological anxiety signs and sedation needs https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24304626/
The Effect of Foot Reflexology Massage on Sleep Quality in Women With Type 2 Diabetes; a Clinical Study https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330552223_The_Effect_of_Foot_Reflexology_Massage_on_Sleep_Quality_in_Women_With_Type_2_Diabetes_a_Clinical_Study
The effects of reflexology on pain and sleep deprivation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A randomized controlled trial https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29705475/
Did your know?..
- Our feet each have 26 bones (we also have 26 vertebrae.) Both these bone structures support us - not only physically - and give us balance and stability.
- A quarter of our 206 body bones are in our feet. When our foot bones are out of alignment, so is the rest of the body.
- There are more than 7,000 nerve endings in each of our feet (superficial and deeper nerve endings send sensory messages to our brain: heat, cold, pain...)
- The lumbosacral plexus (L2 - S1) is the group of spinal nerves that innervates our lower extremities
- Dermatomes of lower limbs and feet: A dermatome is an area of the skin that is irrigated by a single spinal nerve. The nerve root of a dermatome picks up sensory stimuli from this entire area of the skin. Sensations (pain, sensitivity, burning ... ) in the whole skin area is a symptom often caused by one same nerve root
- Each foot is made up of an intricate network of more than 100 tendons, ligaments and muscles, and 33 joints - now is a good time to emphasize how important it is to care for and train your body's muscular and joint systems, including your feet, with regular exercise and a healthy diet.
- Myotomes of the foot: In the same way that a certain nerve root innervates a dermatome, it also innervates a certain group of muscles: a myotome, where in particular, it sends motor signals. Therefore, the involvement of a nerve can cause loss of the functions of the muscles it innervates (weakness, lack of mobility ...)
- For example, the following spinal nerves allow the following muscle functions:
- L3: knee extension
- L4: ankle dorsiflexion
- L5: extension of the big toe
- S1: plantar flexion of the ankle
MORE ABOUT OUR FEET
- Feet have 250,000 sweat glands. When active, feet can produce four to six ounces of sweat a day, sometimes more. Now is a good time to emphasize how hydration is essential to the health of your feet, and your overall health, using moisturizers and foot baths.
- Each step we take places 1.5 times our body weight on the foot (a 75-kilo person exerts 115 kilograms of pressure on the foot with each step).
- It is estimated that a person will take approximately 5,000 to 7,000 steps a day or about 125,000 km in his lifetime, 3 to 4 times the circumference of the planet.
- Our feet are the first shock absorbers in our body. The plantar fascia, also known as plantar fascia, is a strong layer of white fibrous tissue located under the skin on the sole of the foot: it supports the arch of the foot and distributes the plantar load. (Its excessive stretching can cause plantar fasciitis.) It is essential to take good care of it, wearing the right footwear, walking barefoot when possible on various types of surfaces, doing progressive stretches (unless otherwise indicated by a doctor)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/lumbosacral-plexus#:~:text=Definition%3A-,The%20lumbosacral%20plexus%20is%20a%20network%20of%20nerves%20derived%20from,(compare % 3A% 20brachialis% 20plexus)
All studies conclude positively on the beneficial effects of reflexology:
- It is recommended to include clinical reflexology as complementary non-pharmacological therapy in the nursing care of patients or by their caregivers
- Reflexology has been proven to be safe and has no harmful side effects
- Placebo effect in reflexology was ruled out
Clinical reflexology proves to be:
- Physiological parameters
- Mental and emotional state
- Quality of sleep
- QOL (Quality of Life index)
2020 NICE clinical reflexology studies addressed the following conditions and diseases:
- Pediatric health
- Anxiety and sleep quality
- Back pain and stress in coronary angiography
- Stress and extubation time after coronary artery bypass
- Quality of life in multiple sclerosis
- Sleep quality of patients in intensive care
- Dyspnea in patients with advanced cancer
Reflexology medical studies 2020 – published by NICE https://www.evidence.nhs.uk/search?from=2020-01-01&to=2021-02-12&q=reflexology
The effect of reflexology on baroreceptor reflex sensitivity, blood pressure and sinus arrhythmia https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0965229997800039
The effect of foot reflexology on physiological parameters - Arash Khalili, Negin masoudi Alavi, Davoud Mardani, Nastoor Bekhradiani Pour, Akvan Paymard, Mehdi Daraei, Shapour Yaripoor, aba Bashiri, and Mehdi Molavi Vardanjani - Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, and Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan. Iran 2016 https://www.ijmrhs.com/medical-research/the-effect-of-foot-reflexology-on-physiological-parameters.pdf
PLENTY OF VITALITY FOR 2021!
moment of life must be fully lived, avoiding the circumstantial depression and helplessness of their lives" Peterson and Seligman (2004)
It gathers characteristics such as: Enthusiasm, Dynamism, Energy
Awaken your vitality with Reflexology and Coaching!
Reflexology and Vitality: scientific approach
“The effects of foot reflexology on Vitality of the Elderly women” January 2009 Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing 16 - Kan-Yi Lee https://www.researchgate.net/publication/264098738_The_Effects_of_Foot_Reflexology_on_Self-Esteem_and_Vitality_of_the_Elderly_Women
“The effects of Reflexology on Vital signs, Fatigue and Mood” January 2002 Won Jong-Soon, Jeong Ihn-Sook, Kim Ji-Soo, Kim Keum-Soon https://www.researchgate.net/publication/264017734_Effect_of_Foot_Reflexology_on_Vital_Signs_Fatigue_and_Moodotherapy_Moodotherapy_Fatigue_and_Moodotherapy_Receiving_CentientsChematotherapy_
"The effect of foot reflexology on physiological parameters" Arash Khalili, Negin masoudi Alavi, Davoud Mardani, Nastoor Bekhradiani Pour, Akvan Paymard, Mehdi Daraei, Shapour Yaripoor, aba Bashiri, and Mehdi Molavi Vardanjani - Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, and Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan. Iran 2016 https://www.ijmrhs.com/medical-research/the-effect-of-foot-reflexology-on-physiological-parameters.pdf
Coaching and Vitality: scientific approach
"Coaching is a partnership between the client and the coach,“ a thought-provoking and creative process that inspires clients to maximize their personal and professional potential ” International Federation of Coaches
"Mindfulness coaching to improve psychological wellbeing" US National Library of Medicine 2020 Clinicaltrials.gov https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04656626
Eye problems? Eye fatigue or migraine? Long hours on the computer? Itchy eyes?
Scientific studies support ancestral practices evidencing how reflexology helps to recover from ophthalmic conditions, eye strain, improve visual acuity, even fight against itchy, dry or watery eyes caused by allergies, long hours on the computer, air pollution ...
Between sessions with your professional reflexologist, you can get relief from your symptoms by massaging the base of your toes on the sole aspect of your feet (phalanges 1 + 2), and particularly toes 2 and 3, as in this drawing:
For times or moments of stress, tiredness, or to facilitate sleep:
Here is a short tutorial on how to do a relaxing hand self- massage, while working on reflexological points that relieve tension and facilitate relaxation.
This www.barcelonareflexología.com video teaches the steps to follow on one hand, but please:
- Work both hands and wrists
- Work without haste (this massage can last about 15-20 minutes)
- Repeat each exercise 5 or 6 times
- In the event of bone or joint fragility, avoid rotations or twisting of the hands, fingers, wrists
- If you have very thin or very dry skin or fragile blood vessels: apply the massage gently! Do not work on damaged skin
- You can apply a little moisturizer
- Can be repeated daily
"Effects of hand massage on anxiety--" R. Nazari Journal of caring Sciences 2012 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4161077 /
"Relaxation effects of hand massage on autonomic nervous system and aniety! Tsuyako Sato 2017 https://www.fasebj.org/doi/abs/10.1096/fasebj.31.1_supplement.717.4
- Respiratory rate
- Heart rate
- Blodd pressure
These physiological functions can be altered by:
Many clinical studies evidence the positive effect reflexolgy has on these functions and how it reduces stress and anxiety levels and facilitates sleep.
"Evaluation of the effects of foot refleoxlogy on vital signs and anxiety in children .."
Ali Mansouri , Hossein Shadadi, Mahdieh Poudineh-Moghadam, Aziz Shahraki Vahed, Sadegh Dehghanmehr - August 07, 2017
"The impacts of foot reflexology on anxiety among male candidates for coronary angiography: A three-group single-blind randomized clinical trial"
Farhad Ramezanibadra, Kourosh Aminib,Kayvan Hossaingholipora, Sograt Faghihzadehc
Department of Critical Care Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Zanjan Social Determinants of Health Research Center, and Department of Biostatistics at Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran - Elsevier 2018
"The effect of foot reflexology on physiological parameters"
Arash Khalili, Negin masoudi Alavi, Davoud Mardani, Nastoor Bekhradiani Pour, Akvan Paymard, Mehdi Daraei, Shapour Yaripoor, aba Bashiri, and Mehdi Molavi Vardanjani9 - Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, and Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan. Iran 2016
"The effect of reflexotherapy on patients’ vital signs before coronary artery bypass graft surgery "
Article (PDF Available) in Iranian journal of nursing and midwifery research 16(1):8-12 · March 2011Mahin Moeini, Leila Sadat Kahangi, Mahboubeh Valiani, Reza Heshmat
Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran
2019: Reflexology is more present than ever in the medical and scientific media.
The growing interest in this natural and complementary therapy has boosted scientific investigation and lead to many new relevant medical articles that underline:
- The physical, mental, and emotional health benefits to be gained from Reflexology,
- and how it generally improves Quality of Life.
Here are a few articles:
Effects of reflexology on premenstrual syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Source: PubMed - 24 October 2019 - Publisher: BioPsychoSocial medicine
Results of the present study indicated that the reflexology could relieve PMS symptoms, so that overall scores, somatic and psychological symptoms of PMS decreased by applying the reflexology intervention.
A systematic review association of reflexology in managing symptoms and side effects of breast cancer treatment. Source: PubMed - 25 November 2019 - Publisher: Complementary therapies in clinical practice
The results showed that reflexology is associated with benefits for both psychological and physical aspects. Reflexology was reported to improve quality of life
The effectiveness of aromatherapy, massage and reflexology in people with palliative care needs: A systematic review. Source: PubMed - 29 October 2019 - Publisher: Palliative medicine
There was some evidence that compared to an active control, reflexology reduced pain.
Multiple Sclerosis and complementary health approaches. 19 November 2019 - Publisher: National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health
The American Academy of Neurology issued evidence-based guidelines on complementary and alternative medicine use for MS and concluded that evidence was available to develop practice recommendations for use of reflexology
Could complementary health approaches improve the symptom experience and outcomes of critically ill adults? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.Source: PubMed - 07 September 2019 - Publisher: Complementary therapies in medicine
No study-related adverse events or safety-related concerns were reported. There were statistically significant improvements in pain, anxiety, sleep, level of arousal, and duration of mechanical ventilation with reflexology. Evidence suggests CHAs including reflexolgy may reduce the symptom burden of critically ill adults.
Complementary Therapies Evidence-based information to help you self-manage your cancer experience Source: Penny Brohn Cancer Care - 01 August 2019
There is growing evidence to support reflexology as being effective in reducing cancer related pain and anxiety. Reflexology may also lead to reduction of fatigue and improved mood and quality of life.
A systematic review of complementary and alternative medicine in oncology: Psychological and physical effects of manipulative and body-based practices.Source: PubMed - 17 October 2019 - Publisher: PloS one
Most results showed positive and significant effects on symptom outcomes especially pain and fatigue. Reflexology may also improve quality of life and mood.
Coping with your feelings Source: Marie Curie - 01 April 2019
Complementary therapies are given alongside your regular medical treatment. They focus on your wellbeing and may help you to feel more relaxed or to sleep better. They can also be used to relieve pain and tension in the body. Reflexology is a complementary therapy.
Lymphatic Drainage: Joint Pains, Lymphodema, Liquid Retention, PMS, Constipation, Stress and Insomnia
See our Spanish page, and Sources in English below for :
Lymphatic Drainage: Joint Pains, Lymphodema, Liquid Retention, PMS, Constipation, Stress and Insomnia
Medical News Today: Lymphatic Drainage
Lymphatic Drainage benefits to breast cancer surgery patients . US National Library of Medicine. National Institute of Health 2018
Manual Lymphatic Drainage, Hematology, Science Direct 2018